Influence of androgen deprivation therapy on choline PET/CT in recurrent prostate cancer
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Recurrent prostate cancer is usually treated by combining radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy. To stage the cancer, choline positron emission tomography (PET)/CT can be performed. It is generally thought that androgen deprivation therapy does not influence choline PET/CT. In this article we focus on the molecular backgrounds of choline and androgens, and the results of preclinical and clinical studies performed using PET/CT.
Using PubMed, we looked for the relevant articles about androgen deprivation therapy and choline PET/CT.
During ADT, a tendency of decreased uptake of choline in prostate cancer was observed, in particular in hormone-naïve patients.
We conclude that in order to prevent false-negative choline PET/CT scans androgen deprivation should be withheld prior to scanning, especially in hormone-naïve patients.
- Heidenreich A, Bastian PJ, Bellmunt J, Bolla M, Joniau S, Mason MD, et al. Guidelines on prostate cancer. European Association of Urology. 2012. http://www.uroweb.org/gls/pdf/08%20Prostate%20Cancer_LR%20March%2013th%202012.pdf.
- Bauman G, Belhocine T, Kovacs M, Ward A, Beheshti M, Rachinsky I. 18F-fluorocholine for prostate cancer imaging: a systematic review of the literature. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2012;15(1):45–55. CrossRef
- Souvatzoglou M, Weirich G, Schwarzenboeck S, Maurer T, Schuster T, Bundschuh RA, et al. The sensitivity of [11C]choline PET/CT to localize prostate cancer depends on the tumor configuration. Clin Cancer Res 2011;17(11):3751–9. CrossRef
- Walsh PC. Physiologic basis for hormonal therapy in carcinoma of the prostate. Urol Clin North Am 1975;2(1):125–40.
- Limonta P, Montagnani Marelli M, Moretti RM. LHRH analogues as anticancer agents: pituitary and extrapituitary sites of action. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2001;10(4):709–20. CrossRef
- Abrahamsson PA. Potential benefits of intermittent androgen suppression therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Eur Urol 2010;57(1):49–59. CrossRef
- Shelley MD, Kumar S, Coles B, Wilt T, Staffurth J, Mason MD. Adjuvant hormone therapy for localised and locally advanced prostate carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. Cancer Treat Rev 2009;35(7):540–6. CrossRef
- McLeod DG, Iversen P, See WA, Morris T, Armstrong J, Wirth MP, et al. Bicalutamide 150 mg plus standard care vs standard care alone for early prostate cancer. BJU Int 2006;97(2):247–54. CrossRef
- Shelley MD, Kumar S, Wilt T, Staffurth J, Coles B, Mason MD. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials of neo-adjuvant hormone therapy for localised and locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rev 2009;35:9–17. CrossRef
- Kumar S, Shelley M, Harrison C, Coles B, Wilt TJ, Mason MD. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormone therapy for localised and locally advanced prostate cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;4:CD006019.
- van der Kwast TH, Lopes C, Santonja C, Pihl CG, Neetens I, Martikainen P, et al. Guidelines for processing and reporting of prostatic needle biopsies. J Clin Pathol 2003;56(5):336–40. CrossRef
- Bolla M, de Reijke TM, Van Tienhoven G, Van den Bergh AC, Oddens J, Poortmans PM, et al. Duration of androgen suppression in the treatment of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2009;360(24):2516–27. CrossRef
- Bathen TF, Sitter B, Sjøbakk TE, Tessem MB, Gribbestad IS. Magnetic resonance metabolomics of intact tissue: a biotechnological tool in cancer diagnostics and treatment evaluation. Cancer Res 2010;70:6692–6. CrossRef
- Li Z, Vance DE. Phosphatidylcholine and choline homeostasis. J Lipid Res 2008;49(6):1187–94. CrossRef
- Kennedy EP, Weiss SB. The function of cytidine coenzymes in the biosynthesis of phospholipides. J Biol Chem 1956;222(1):193–214.
- Aoyama C, Liao H, Ishidate K. Structure and function of choline kinase isoforms in mammalian cells. Prog Lipid Res 2004;43(3):266–81. CrossRef
- Gallego-Ortega D, Ramirez de Molina A, Ramos MA, Valdes-Mora F, Barderas MG, Sarmentero-Estrada J, et al. Differential role of human choline kinase alpha and beta enzymes in lipid metabolism: implications in cancer onset and treatment. PLoS One 2009;4(11):e7819. CrossRef
- Aoyama C, Ohtani A, Ishidate K. Expression and characterization of the active molecular forms of choline/ethanolamine kinase-alpha and -beta in mouse tissues, including carbon tetrachloride-induced liver. Biochem J 2002;363(Pt 3):777–84. CrossRef
- Ramírez de Molina A, Rodríguez-González A, Gutiérrez R, Martínez-Piñeiro L, Sánchez J, Bonilla F, et al. Overexpression of choline kinase is a frequent feature in human tumor-derived cell lines and in lung, prostate, and colorectal human cancers. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002;296(3):580–3. CrossRef
- Hara T, Bansal A, DeGrado TR. Choline transporter as a novel target for molecular imaging of cancer. Mol Imaging 2006;5(4):498–509.
- Bertilsson H, Tessem MB, Flatberg A, Viset T, Gribbestad I, Angelsen A, et al. Changes in gene transcription underlying the aberrant citrate and choline metabolism in human prostate cancer samples. Clin Cancer Res 2012;18:3261–9. CrossRef
- Rodríguez-González A, Ramírez de Molina A, Fernández F, Ramos MA, del Carmen Núñez M, Campos J, et al. Inhibition of choline kinase as a specific cytotoxic strategy in oncogene-transformed cells. Oncogene 2003;22(55):8803–12. CrossRef
- Hernández-Alcoceba R, Saniger L, Campos J, Núñez MC, Khaless F, Gallo MA, et al. Choline kinase inhibitors as a novel approach for antiproliferative drug design. Oncogene 1997;15(19):2289–301. CrossRef
- Katz-Brull R, Degani H. Kinetics of choline transport and phosphorylation in human breast cancer cells; NMR application of the zero trans method. Anticancer Res 1996;16(3B):1375–80.
- Tew DG, Southan C, Rice SQ, Lawrence MP, Li H, Boyd HF, et al. Purification, properties, sequencing, and cloning of a lipoprotein-associated, serine-dependent phospholipase involved in the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1996;16(4):591–9.
- Vainio P, Gupta S, Ketola K, Mirtti T, Mpindi JP, Kohonen P, et al. Arachidonic acid pathway members PLA2G7, HPGD, EPHX2, and CYP4F8 identified as putative novel therapeutic targets in prostate cancer. Am J Pathol 2011;178:525–36. CrossRef
- Hara T, Bansal A, DeGrado T. Effect on hypoxia on the uptake of [methyl-3H]choline, [1-14C]acetate and [18F]FDG in cultured prostate cancer cells. Nucl Med Biol 2006;33:977–84. CrossRef
- Emonds KM, Swinnen JV, van Weerden WM, Vanderhoydonc F, Nuyts J, Mortelmans L, et al. Do androgens control the uptake of 18F-FDG, 11C-choline and 11C-acetate in human prostate cancer cell lines? Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2011;38:1842–53. CrossRef
- Jadvar H, Gurbuz A, Li X, Shahinian A, Conti PS. Choline autoradiography of human prostate cancer xenograft: effect of castration. Mol Imaging 2008;7:147–52.
- DeGrado TR, Coleman RE, Wang S, Baldwin SW, Orr MD, Robertson CN, et al. Synthesis and evaluation of 18F-labeled choline as an oncologic tracer for positron emission tomography: initial findings in prostate cancer. Cancer Res 2001;61:110–7.
- De Waele A, Van Binnebeek S, Mottaghy FM. Response assessment of hormonal therapy in prostate cancer by [11C]choline PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med 2010;35:701–3. CrossRef
- Beheshti M, Vali R, Waldenberger P, Fitz F, Nader M, Hammer J, et al. The use of F-18 choline PET in the assessment of bone metastases in prostate cancer: correlation with morphological changes on CT. Mol Imaging Biol 2009;11:446–54. CrossRef
- Giovacchini G, Picchio M, Coradeschi E, Scattoni V, Bettinardi V, Cozzarini C, et al. [(11)C]Choline uptake with PET/CT for the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer: relation to PSA levels, tumour stage and anti-androgenic therapy. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2008;35:1065–73. CrossRef
- Fuccio C, Schiavina R, Castellucci P, Rubello D, Martorana G, Celli M, et al. Androgen deprivation therapy influences the uptake of 11C-choline in patients with recurrent prostate cancer: the preliminary results of a sequential PET/CT study. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2011;38:1985–9. CrossRef
- Price DT, Coleman E, Liao RP, Robertson CN, Polascik TJ, DeGrado TR. Comparison of [18F]fluorocholine and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose for positron emission tomography of androgen dependent and androgen independent prostate cancer. J Urol 2002;168:273–80. CrossRef
- Giovacchini G, Picchio M, Coradeschi E, Bettinardi V, Gianolli L, Scattoni V, et al. Predictive factors of [(11)C]choline PET/CT in patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2010;37(2):301–9. CrossRef
- Henninger B, Vesco P, Putzer D, Kendler D, Loizides A, Bale RJ, et al. [18F]choline positron emission tomography in prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy: influence of antiandrogen therapy – a preliminary study. Nucl Med Commun 2012;33:889–94. CrossRef
- Mueller-Lisse UG, Swanson MG, Vigneron DB, Hricak H, Bessette A, Males RG, et al. Time-dependent effects of hormone-deprivation therapy on prostate metabolism as detected by combined magnetic resonance imaging and 3D magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Magn Reson Med 2001;46(1):49–57. CrossRef
- Rinnab L, Mottaghy FM, Blumstein NM, Reske SN, Hautmann RE, Hohl K, et al. Evaluation of [11C]-choline positron-emission/computed tomography in patients with increasing prostate-specific antigen levels after primary treatment for prostate cancer. BJU Int 2007;100(4):786–93. CrossRef
- Reske SN, Blumstein NM, Glatting G. [11C]choline PET/CT imaging in occult local relapse of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2008;35(1):9–17. CrossRef
- Krause BJ, Souvatzoglou M, Tuncel M, Herrmann K, Buck AK, Praus C, et al. The detection rate of [11C]choline-PET/CT depends on the serum PSA-value in patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2008;35(1):18–23. CrossRef
- Cimitan M, Bortolus R, Morassut S, Canzonieri V, Garbeglio A, Baresic T, et al. [18F]fluorocholine PET/CT imaging for the detection of recurrent prostate cancer at PSA relapse: experience in 100 consecutive patients. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2006;33(12):1387–98. CrossRef
- Heinisch M, Dirisamer A, Loidl W, Stoiber F, Gruy B, Haim S, et al. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography with F-18-fluorocholine for restaging of prostate cancer patients: meaningful at PSA < 5 ng/ml? Mol Imaging Biol 2006;8(1):43–8. CrossRef
- Husarik DB, Miralbell R, Dubs M, John H, Giger OT, Gelet A, et al. Evaluation of [(18)F]-choline PET/CT for staging and restaging of prostate cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2008;35(2):253–63. CrossRef
- Influence of androgen deprivation therapy on choline PET/CT in recurrent prostate cancer
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Volume 40, Issue 1 Supplement, pp 41-47
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Recurrent prostate cancer
- Choline PET/CT
- Androgen deprivation therapy
- Hormone-naïve prostate cancer
- Castration-resistant prostate cancer
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Urology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen, The Netherlands
- 2. Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands