European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 851–885

EANM/ESC guidelines for radionuclide imaging of cardiac function

  • B. Hesse
  • T. B. Lindhardt
  • W. Acampa
  • C. Anagnostopoulos
  • J. Ballinger
  • J. J. Bax
  • L. Edenbrandt
  • A. Flotats
  • G. Germano
  • T. Gmeiner Stopar
  • P. Franken
  • A. Kelion
  • A. Kjaer
  • D. Le Guludec
  • M. Ljungberg
  • A. F. Maenhout
  • C. Marcassa
  • J. Marving
  • F. McKiddie
  • W. M. Schaefer
  • L. Stegger
  • R. Underwood
Guidelines

DOI: 10.1007/s00259-007-0694-9

Cite this article as:
Hesse, B., Lindhardt, T.B., Acampa, W. et al. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging (2008) 35: 851. doi:10.1007/s00259-007-0694-9

Abstract

Radionuclide imaging of cardiac function represents a number of well-validated techniques for accurate determination of right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and LV volumes. These first European guidelines give recommendations for how and when to use first-pass and equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, gated PET, and studies with non-imaging devices for the evaluation of cardiac function. The items covered are presented in 11 sections: clinical indications, radiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry, study acquisition, RV EF, LV EF, LV volumes, LV regional function, LV diastolic function, reports and image display and reference values from the literature of RVEF, LVEF and LV volumes. If specific recommendations given cannot be based on evidence from original, scientific studies, referral is given to “prevailing or general consensus”. The guidelines are designed to assist in the practice of referral to, performance, interpretation and reporting of nuclear cardiology studies for the evaluation of cardiac performance.

Keywords

Nuclear imagingEANM/ESC guidelinesCardiac function

Abbreviations

ACD

acid citrate dextrose

CAD

coronary artery disease

cMRI

cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

ECG

electrocardiogram

ECT

Emory Cardiac Toolbox

ED

end-diastolic

EDV

end-diastolic volume

ES

end-systolic

EF

ejection fraction

ERNV

equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography

ESV

end-systolic volume

FP

first pass

FPRNV

first-pass radionuclide ventriculography

HSA

human serum albumin

i.v.

intravenous

LAO

left anterior oblique

LBBB

left bundle branche block

LEGP

low energy general purpose

LEHR

low energy high resolution

LEHS

low energy high sensitivity

LPO

left posterior oblique

LV

left ventricle

LVV

left ventricular volume

LVEF

left ventricular ejection fraction

MI

myocardial infarction

MPS

myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

NSTEMI

non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction

PFR

peak filling rate

PFRSV

PFR normalised to stroke volume

QGS

quantitative gated SPECT

RAO

right anterior oblique

RBC

red blood cells

RNV

radionuclide ventriculography

ROI

region-of-interest

RV

right ventricle

STEMI

ST elevation acute myocardial infarction

TAC

time–activity curve

TID

transient ischaemic dilatation

TPFR

time to peak filling rate

WM

wall motion

WTh

wall thickening

Copyright information

© EANM 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Hesse
    • 1
  • T. B. Lindhardt
    • 2
  • W. Acampa
    • 3
  • C. Anagnostopoulos
    • 4
  • J. Ballinger
    • 5
  • J. J. Bax
    • 6
  • L. Edenbrandt
    • 7
  • A. Flotats
    • 8
  • G. Germano
    • 9
  • T. Gmeiner Stopar
    • 10
  • P. Franken
    • 11
  • A. Kelion
    • 12
  • A. Kjaer
    • 1
  • D. Le Guludec
    • 13
  • M. Ljungberg
    • 14
  • A. F. Maenhout
    • 4
  • C. Marcassa
    • 15
  • J. Marving
    • 1
  • F. McKiddie
    • 16
  • W. M. Schaefer
    • 17
  • L. Stegger
    • 18
  • R. Underwood
    • 19
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear MedicineUniversity Hospital of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyHilleroed HospitalHilleroedDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimages of the National Council of ResearchUniversity of Naples Federico IINaplesItaly
  4. 4.Department of Nuclear MedicineRoyal Brompton HospitalLondonUK
  5. 5.Department of Nuclear MedicineGuy’s Hospital–Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Foundation TrustLondonUK
  6. 6.Department of CardiologyLeiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands
  7. 7.Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University Research Program in Medical InformaticsMalmö University HospitalMalmöSweden
  8. 8.Nuclear Medicine DepartmentAutonomous University of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  9. 9.Artificial Intelligence Program at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and Department of Medicine of the University of California at Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  10. 10.Department of Nuclear MedicineUniversity Medical Centre Ljubljana, Radiopharmacy and Clinical BiochemistryZaloska 7Slovenia
  11. 11.Nuclear MedicineAZ VUBBrusselsBelgium
  12. 12.Nuclear Medicine DepartmentHarefield HospitalHarefieldUK
  13. 13.Service de medecine nucleairehôpital Bichat, APHP, Université Denis-Diderot, UMR577B, and Inserm U773ParisFrance
  14. 14.Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, LundLund UniversityLundSweden
  15. 15.Department of Cardiology, Fondazione MaugeriIRCCSVerunoItaly
  16. 16.Nuclear Medicine DepartmentAberdeen Royal InfirmaryScotlandUK
  17. 17.Nuclear Medicine DepartmentUniversity Hospital, Aachen University of TechnologyAachenGermany
  18. 18.Department of Nuclear MedicineUniversity Hospital MünsterMünsterGermany
  19. 19.Department of Nuclear MedicineRoyal Brompton HospitalLondonUK