Biotransformation of ginsenosides by hydrolyzing the sugar moieties of ginsenosides using microbial glycosidases
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- Park, C., Yoo, M., Noh, K. et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2010) 87: 9. doi:10.1007/s00253-010-2567-6
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Ginsenosides are the principal components responsible for the pharmaceutical activities of ginseng. The minor ginsenosides, which are also pharmaceutically active, can be produced via the hydrolysis of the sugar moieties in the major ginsenosides using acid hydrolytic, heating, microbial, and enzymatic transformation techniques. The enzymatic method has a profound potential for ginsenoside transformation, owing to its high specificity, yield, and productivity, and this method is increasingly being recognized as a useful tool in structural modification and metabolism studies. In this article, the transformation methods of ginsenosides, the characterization of microbial glycosidases with ginsenoside hydrolyzing activities, and the enzymatic production of minor ginsenosides are reviewed. Moreover, the conversions of ginsenosides using cell extracts from food microorganisms and recombinant thermostable β-d-glycosidases are proposed as feasible methods for use in industrial processes.