Biochemistry of microbial polyvinyl alcohol degradation


DOI: 10.1007/s00253-009-2113-6

Cite this article as:
Kawai, F. & Hu, X. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2009) 84: 227. doi:10.1007/s00253-009-2113-6


Effect of minor chemical structures such as 1,2-diol content, ethylene content, tacticity, a degree of polymerization, and a degree of saponification of the main chain on biodegradability of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is summarized. Most PVA-degraders are Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the Pseudomonads and Sphingomonads, but Gram-positive bacteria also have PVA-degrading abilities. Several examples show symbiotic degradation of PVA by different mechanisms. Penicillium sp. is the only reported eukaryotic degrader. A vinyl alcohol oligomer-utilizing fungus, Geotrichum fermentans WF9101, has also been reported. Lignolytic fungi have displayed non-specific degradation of PVA. Extensive published studies have established a two-step process for the biodegradation of PVA. Some bacteria excrete extracellular PVA oxidase to yield oxidized PVA, which is partly under spontaneous depolymerization and is further metabolized by the second step enzyme (hydrolase). On the other hand, PVA (whole and depolymerized to some extent) must be taken up into the periplasmic space of some Gram-negative bacteria, where PVA is oxidized by PVA dehydrogenase, coupled to a respiratory chain. The complete pva operon was identified in Sphingopyxis sp. 113P3. Anaerobic biodegradability of PVA has also been suggested.


Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) PVA metabolism Non-metabolic degradation of PVA Two-step degradation of PVA Anaerobic PVA degradation pva operon 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.R&D Center for Bio-based materialsKyoto Institute of TechnologyKyotoJapan
  2. 2.College of Plant Protection and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for AgricultureNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina