γ-Cyclodextrin: a review on enzymatic production and applications
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- Li, Z., Wang, M., Wang, F. et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2007) 77: 245. doi:10.1007/s00253-007-1166-7
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Cyclodextrins are cyclic α-1,4-glucans that are produced from starch or starch derivates using cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase). The most common forms are α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins. This mini-review focuses on the enzymatic production, unique properties, and applications of γ-cyclodextrin as well as its difference with α- and β-cyclodextrins. As all known wild-type CGTases produce a mixture of α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins, the obtaining of a CGTase predominantly producing γ-cyclodextrin is discussed. Recently, more economic production processes for γ-cyclodextrin have been developed using improved γ-CGTases and appropriate complexing agents. Compared with α- and β-cyclodextrins, γ-cyclodextrin has a larger internal cavity, higher water solubility, and more bioavailability, so it has wider applications in many industries, especially in the food and pharmaceutical industries.