, Volume 67, Issue 3, pp 289-298
Date: 06 Jan 2005

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Strategies for efficient production of heterologous proteins in Escherichia coli

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In recent years, the number of recombinant proteins used for therapeutic applications has increased dramatically. Production of these proteins has a remarkable demand in the market. Escherichia coli offers a means for the rapid and economical production of recombinant proteins. These advantages, coupled with a wealth of biochemical and genetic knowledge, have enabled the production of such economically therapeutic proteins such as insulin and bovine growth hormone. These demands have driven the development of a variety of strategies for achieving high-level expression of protein, particularly involving several aspects such as expression vectors design, gene dosage, promoter strength (transcriptional regulation), mRNA stability, translation initiation and termination (translational regulation), host design considerations, codon usage, and fermentation factors available for manipulating the expression conditions, which are the major challenges is obtaining the high yield of protein at low cost.

The Editor-in-Chief has decided to retract this article. Upon investigation carried out according to the Committee on Publication Ethics guidelines, it has been found that the authors have duplicated substantial parts from the following article:
Strategies for Achieving High-Level Expression of Genes in Escherichia coli. Savvas C. Makrides. MICROBIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, Sept. 1996, p. 512-538 Vol. 60, No. 3. Copyright ©1996, American Society for Microbiology
In particular the authors duplicated (1) Fig. 1 (incl. legend) (2) The subchapter "Translational regulation" (3) The subchapter "mRNA stability"
As it was not possible to contact the authors the retraction had to be executed without their approval. Attempts to contact S. Jana were unsuccessful. Dr. J.K. Debt has since passed away.
An erratum to this article is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-014-5822-4.