Biochemical properties and substrate specificities of alkaline and histidine acid phytases
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- Oh, BC., Choi, WC., Park, S. et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2004) 63: 362. doi:10.1007/s00253-003-1345-0
Phytases are a special class of phosphatase that catalyze the sequential hydrolysis of phytate to less-phosphorylated myo-inositol derivatives and inorganic phosphate. Phytases are added to animal feedstuff to reduce phosphate pollution in the environment, since monogastric animals such as pigs, poultry, and fish are unable to metabolize phytate. Based on biochemical properties and amino acid sequence alignment, phytases can be categorized into two major classes, the histidine acid phytases and the alkaline phytases. The histidine acid phosphatase class shows broad substrate specificity and hydrolyzes metal-free phytate at the acidic pH range and produces myo-inositol monophosphate as the final product. In contrast, the alkaline phytase class exhibits strict substrate specificity for the calcium–phytate complex and produces myo-inositol trisphosphate as the final product. This review describes recent findings that present novel viewpoints concerning the molecular basis of phytase classification.