Organization of the genes encoding the human proteasome activators PA28α and β
Two proteasome activators PA28α and β, which have been implicated in antigen processing for loading class I MHC molecules, are synthesized in response to Ifn-γ. The human genes encoding these activators (PSME1 and PSME2, respectively) were analyzed by sequencing. Each gene comprised 11 exons, consistent with gene duplication during vertebrate evolution. The intron/exon organization of both genes was highly conserved, the major difference being the absence of the exon encoding the lysine and glutamic acid-rich 'KEKE' motif in PA28β. Two other genes of relevance to the immune system were located close to those for PA28 at 14q11.2 including ISGF3G, a protein involved in transcription after IFNα signalling. These sequences were also characterized.