Influence of Tyrphostin AG490 on the expression of diabetes-associated markers in human adipocytes
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- Davoodi-Semiromi, A., Wasserfall, C.H., Hassanzadeh, A. et al. Immunogenetics (2013) 65: 83. doi:10.1007/s00251-012-0659-4
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Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi) hold promise as a treatment for a variety of disorders ranging from those in oncology to diseases thought as immune mediated. Tyrphostin AG490 is a potent Jak-Stat TKi shown effective in the prevention of allograft transplant rejection, experimental autoimmune disease, as well as the treatment of cancer. However, given its ability to modulate this important but pleiotropic intracellular pathway, we thought that it is important to examine its effects on glucose metabolism and expression of major transcription factors and adipokines associated with insulin insensitivity and diabetes. We investigated the metabolic effects of AG490 on glucose levels in vivo using an animal model of diabetes, nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, and transcription factor expression through assessment of human adipocytes. AG490 treatment of young nondiabetic NOD mice significantly reduced blood glucose levels (p = 0.002). In vitro, treatment of adipocytes with rosiglitazone, an insulin sensitizer that binds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) receptors and increases the adipocyte response to insulin, significantly increased the expression of the antidiabetic adipokine adiponectin. Importantly, the combination of rosiglitazone plus Tyrphostin AG490 further increased this effect and was specifically associated with significant upregulation of C-enhanced binding protein (C/EBP) (p < 0.0001). In terms of the mechanism underlying this action, regulatory regions of the PPARγ, ADIPOQ, and C/EBP contain the Stat5 DNA-binding sequences and were demonstrated, by gel shift experiments in vitro. These data suggest that blocking Jak-Stat signaling with AG490 reduces blood glucose levels and modulates the expression of transcription factors previously associated with diabetes, thereby supporting its potential as a therapy for this disease.