Comparative Genomics of cpn60-Defined Enterococcus hirae Ecotypes and Relationship of Gene Content Differences to Competitive Fitness
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- Katyal, I., Chaban, B. & Hill, J.E. Microb Ecol (2016) 72: 917. doi:10.1007/s00248-015-0708-2
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Natural microbial communities undergo selection-driven succession with changes in environmental conditions and available nutrients. In a previous study of the pig faecal Enterococcus community, we demonstrated that cpn60 universal target (UT) sequences could resolve phenotypically and genotypically distinct ecotypes of Enterococcus spp. that emerged over time in the faecal microbiome of growing pigs. In this study, we characterized genomic diversity in the identified Enterococcus hirae ecotypes in order to define further the nature and degree of genome content differences between taxa resolved by cpn60 UT sequences. Genome sequences for six representative isolates (two from each of three ecotypes) were compared. Differences in phosphotransferase systems and amino acid metabolism pathways for glutamine, proline and selenocysteine were observed. Differences in the lac family phosphotransferase system corresponded to lactose utilization phenotypes of the isolates. Competitive fitness of the E. hirae ecotypes was evaluated by in vitro growth competition assays in pig faecal extract medium. Isolates from E. hirae-1 and E. hirae-2 ecotypes were able to out-compete isolates from the E. hirae-3 ecotype, consistent with the relatively low abundance of E. hirae-3 relative to E. hirae-1 and E. hirae-2 previously observed in the pig faecal microbiome, and with observed differences between the ecotypes in gene content related to biosynthetic capacity. Results of this study provide a genomic basis for the definition of ecotypes within E. hirae and confirm the utility of the cpn60 UT sequence for high-resolution profiling of complex microbial communities.