, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 101-111

Sponge-specific Bacterial Associations of the Mediterranean Sponge Chondrilla nucula (Demospongiae, Tetractinomorpha)

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Abstract

A stable and specific bacterial community was shown to be associated with the Mediterranean sponge Chondrilla nucula. The associated bacterial communities were demonstrated to be highly similar for all studied specimens regardless of sampling time and geographical region. In addition, analysis of 16S rDNA clone libraries revealed three constantly C. nucula-associated bacterial phylotypes belonging to the Acidobacteria, the Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria present in sponge specimens from two Mediterranean regions with distinct water masses (Ligurian Sea and Adriatic Sea). For the first time, candidate division TM7 bacteria were found in marine sponges. A major part (79%) of the C. nucula-derived 16S rDNA sequences were closely related to other sponge-associated bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis identified 14 16S rRNA gene sequence clusters, seven of which consisted of exclusively sponge-derived sequences, whereas the other seven clusters contained additional environmental sequences. This study adds to a growing database on the stability and variability of microbial consortia associated with marine sponges.