Review

Pediatric Radiology

, Volume 43, Issue 9, pp 1063-1073

Safety of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in children for non-cardiac applications: a review by the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR) and the International Contrast Ultrasound Society (ICUS)

  • Kassa DargeAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaContrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) Task Force of the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR)International Contrast Ultrasound Society (ICUS) Email author 
  • , Frederica PapadopoulouAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, University of IoanninaDepartment of Radiology, University of Ioannina
  • , Aikaterini NtouliaAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDepartment of Radiology, University of Ioannina
  • , Dorothy I. BulasAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDivision of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children’s National Medical CenterContrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) Task Force of the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR)
  • , Brian D. ColeyAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDepartment of Pediatric Radiology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterContrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) Task Force of the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR)
  • , Lynn A. FordhamAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDivision of Pediatric Imaging, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina Chapel HillContrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) Task Force of the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR)
  • , Harriet J. PaltielAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDepartment of Radiology, Boston Children’s Hopsital, Harvard UniversityContrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) Task Force of the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR)International Contrast Ultrasound Society (ICUS)
  • , Beth McCarvilleAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDivision of Diagnostic Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children’s Research HospitalContrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) Task Force of the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR)
  • , Frank M. VolbergAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDivision of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Georgetown UniversityContrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) Task Force of the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR)
    • , David O. CosgroveAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaImperial College School of MedicineInternational Contrast Ultrasound Society (ICUS)
    • , Barry B. GoldbergAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDepartment of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University HospitalInternational Contrast Ultrasound Society (ICUS)
    • , Stephanie R. WilsonAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaDepartment of Diagnostic Imaging and Department of Medicine, Division of GastroenterologyInternational Contrast Ultrasound Society (ICUS)
    • , Steven B. FeinsteinAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaSection of Cardiology, Rush University Medical CenterInternational Contrast Ultrasound Society (ICUS)

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Abstract

The practice of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in children is in the setting of off-label use or research. The widespread practice of pediatric contrast-enhanced US is primarily in Europe. There is ongoing effort by the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR) and International Contrast Ultrasound Society (ICUS) to push for pediatric contrast-enhanced US in the United States. With this in mind, the main objective of this review is to describe the status of US contrast agent safety in non-cardiac applications in children. The five published studies using pediatric intravenous contrast-enhanced US comprise 110 children. There is no mention of adverse events in these studies. From a European survey 948 children can be added. In that survey six minor adverse events were reported in five children. The intravesical administration of US contrast agents for diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux entails the use of a bladder catheter. Fifteen studies encompassing 2,951 children have evaluated the safety of intravesical US contrast agents in children. A European survey adds 4,131 children to this group. No adverse events could be attributed to the contrast agent. They were most likely related to the bladder catheterization. The existing data on US contrast agent safety in children are encouraging in promoting the widespread use of contrast-enhanced US.

Keywords

Children Ultrasound contrast agent Adverse event Contrast-enhanced ultrasound