Our goal was to construct three-dimensional (3D) virtual models to allow simultaneous visualization of the ventricles, ventricular septal defect (VSD) and great arteries in patients with complex intracardiac anatomy to aid in surgical planning. We also sought to correlate measurements from the source cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) image dataset and the 3D model. Complicated ventriculo-arterial relationships in patients with complex conotruncal malformations make preoperative assessment of possible repair pathways difficult. Patients were chosen with double outlet right ventricle for the complexity of intracardiac anatomy and potential for better delineation of anatomic spatial relationships. Virtual 3D models were generated from CMR 3D datasets. Measurements were made on the source CMR as well as the 3D model for the following structures: aortic diameter in orthogonal planes, VSD diameter in orthogonal planes and long axis of right ventricle. A total of six patients were identified for inclusion. The path from the ventricles to each respective outflow tract and the location of the VSD with respect to each great vessel was visualized clearly in all patients. Measurements on the virtual model showed excellent correlation with the source CMR when all measurements were included by Pearson coefficient, r = 0.99 as well as for each individual structure. Construction of virtual 3D models in patients with complex conotruncal defects from 3D CMR datasets allows for simultaneous visualization of anatomic relationships relevant for surgical repair. The availability of these models may allow for a more informed preoperative evaluation in these patients.
Congenital heart disease 3D cardiac models 3D printing
Videoclip 1. Demonstration of ability of 3D model to be manipulated using 3D model from patient 1. The full model is rotated in order to demonstrate the anatomy from different perspectives. The cropped model is then revealed demonstrating the intracardiac anatomy. (MOV 58035 kb)