Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 3–12

Modeling the Fontan Circulation: Where We Are and Where We Need to Go


DOI: 10.1007/s00246-007-9104-0

Cite this article as:
DeGroff, C.G. Pediatr Cardiol (2008) 29: 3. doi:10.1007/s00246-007-9104-0


The Fontan procedure and its subsequent modifications over the past 30 years can be described as a class of surgical procedures for patients born with complex congenital heart disease exhibiting a single-ventricle physiology. The long-term outcome for children currently undergoing a Fontan procedure remains worrisome because of multiple late morbidities observed. Despite significant modeling efforts spanning three decades, improvements to the Fontan procedure have occurred without comprehensive validation from these modeling studies. Careful examination shows that modeling studies to date offer only a “glimpse through a keyhole” into understanding and modeling a representative range of the variations in anatomy and physiology that exist in Fontan patients. Suggestions for future investigations are provided.


Congenital heart disease Fontan procedure 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Pittsburgh Medical CenterChildren’s Hospital of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

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