Exposure of the U.S. Population Aged 6 Years and Older to Cadmium: 1988–1994
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- Paschal, D., Burt, V., Caudill, S. et al. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2000) 38: 377. doi:10.1007/s002449910050
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Cadmium was measured in urine specimens from 22,162 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III 1988–1994). Urine cadmium, expressed either as uncorrected (μg/L) or creatinine corrected (μg/g creatinine) increased with age and with smoking. The arithmetic mean value for urine cadmium in the U.S. population was 0.57 μg/L or 0.48 μg/g creatinine. Based on our estimates, about 2.3% of the U.S. population have urine cadmium concentrations greater than 2 μg/g creatinine, and 0.2% have concentrations greater than 5 μg/g creatinine, the current World Health Organization health-based exposure limit.