Exposure of the U.S. Population Aged 6 Years and Older to Cadmium: 1988–1994

  • D. C.  Paschal
  • V.  Burt
  • S. P.  Caudill
  • E. W.  Gunter
  • J. L.  Pirkle
  • E. J.  Sampson
  • D. T.  Miller
  • R. J.  Jackson

DOI: 10.1007/s002449910050

Cite this article as:
Paschal, D., Burt, V., Caudill, S. et al. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2000) 38: 377. doi:10.1007/s002449910050

Abstract.

Cadmium was measured in urine specimens from 22,162 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III 1988–1994). Urine cadmium, expressed either as uncorrected (μg/L) or creatinine corrected (μg/g creatinine) increased with age and with smoking. The arithmetic mean value for urine cadmium in the U.S. population was 0.57 μg/L or 0.48 μg/g creatinine. Based on our estimates, about 2.3% of the U.S. population have urine cadmium concentrations greater than 2 μg/g creatinine, and 0.2% have concentrations greater than 5 μg/g creatinine, the current World Health Organization health-based exposure limit.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C.  Paschal
    • 1
  • V.  Burt
    • 2
  • S. P.  Caudill
    • 1
  • E. W.  Gunter
    • 1
  • J. L.  Pirkle
    • 1
  • E. J.  Sampson
    • 1
  • D. T.  Miller
    • 1
  • R. J.  Jackson
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Environmental Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, Georgia 30341-3724, USA US
  2. 2.National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Presidential Building, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA US

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