Preliminary Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Air Particles (PM10) in Amritsar, India: Sources, Apportionment, and Possible Risk Implications to Humans

  • Simerpreet Kaur
  • Kurunthachalam Senthilkumar
  • V. K. Verma
  • Bhupander Kumar
  • Sanjay Kumar
  • Jatinder Kaur Katnoria
  • C. S. Sharma
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00244-013-9912-6

Cite this article as:
Kaur, S., Senthilkumar, K., Verma, V.K. et al. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol (2013) 65: 382. doi:10.1007/s00244-013-9912-6

Abstract

Preliminary analysis was performed to assess human health risks of exposure to 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by way of inhalation by children and adults living in urban area of Amritsar, Punjab, India. In particular, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA’s) 16 priority PAH compounds were analyzed in air particulate matter (PM10) from different geographical locations by high-volume air sampler. Sum concentrations of PAHs (37–274 ng m−3) were comparable with those of other cities in India as well many cities on a global scale. Pyrene, naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, fluoranthene, fluorene, and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene accounted for >80 % of ∑16PAH concentrations. Furthermore, the contribution of seven carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 12 % of ∑16PAHs. The estimated carcinogenicity of PAHs in terms of benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalency (BaPTEQ) was assessed and confirmed that dibenzo(a,h)anthracene was the dominant PAH contributor (88.7 %) followed by benzo(a)pyrene (6.67 %). Homolog pattern and diagnostic ratios of PAHs suggested that mixed pyrogenic sources—including biomass burning, coal combustion, and petrogenic sources, such as vehicular emissions—are dominant PAH sources in Amritsar. Health risk of adults and children by way of PAHs was assessed by estimating the lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and corresponding incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) using USEPA guidelines. The assessed cancer risk (ILCR) was found to be within the acceptable range (10−6–10−4).

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simerpreet Kaur
    • 1
  • Kurunthachalam Senthilkumar
    • 2
  • V. K. Verma
    • 3
  • Bhupander Kumar
    • 3
  • Sanjay Kumar
    • 3
  • Jatinder Kaur Katnoria
    • 1
  • C. S. Sharma
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Botanical and Environmental SciencesGuru Nanak Dev UniversityAmritsarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Natural ResourcesSavannah State UniversitySavannahUSA
  3. 3.National Reference Trace Organics LaboratoryCentral Pollution Control BoardDelhiIndia