Localization and inhibitory activity of α2HS-glycoprotein in the kidney
α2HS-Glycoprotein (HS), a crystal surface binding substance extracted from human urine, is considered to be one of the urinary macromolecular inhibitors in urolithiasis. In the present study, reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction was used to examine HS mRNA expression, and immunohistochemical staining was used to reveal its localization in the human kidney. The inhibitory effects of recombinant human HS and native human HS on calcium oxalate crystal growth were examined in a seed crystal system. HS mRNA was found to be expressed in the human kidney, and it was located in the epithelial cells of distal and proximal renal tubular cells. However, neither recombinant HS nor native HS had an inhibitory effect on crystals in the protein concentration of urine of healthy humans. HS in the urine, therefore, does not seem to be a potent inhibitor in stone formation.