Urolithiasis

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 227–232

The true stone composition and abnormality of urinary metabolic lithogenic factors of rats fed diets containing melamine

Authors

  • Xiaoming Cong
    • Department of UrologyJiangsu Province Hospital of TCM, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing TCM University
    • Department of UrologyAffiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School
  • Xiaojian Gu
    • Department of UrologyJiangsu Province Hospital of TCM, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing TCM University
  • Yan Xu
    • Department of UrologyJiangsu Province Hospital of TCM, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing TCM University
    • Department of UrologyAffiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School
  • Luming Shen
    • Department of UrologyAffiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00240-013-0622-3

Cite this article as:
Cong, X., Gu, X., Xu, Y. et al. Urolithiasis (2014) 42: 227. doi:10.1007/s00240-013-0622-3

Abstract

To better understand the toxicity of melamine to humans, the stone composition and urinary metabolic lithogenic factors of rats fed diets containing melamine including the infant’s melamine-induced stone composition were studied. Sixty 4-week-old male rats divided into three groups were, respectively, fed diets containing no melamine (control), 0.1 % melamine, and 1 % melamine for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, the collected stones and 24-h urines from rats were, respectively, measured with compositions and metabolic lithogenic parameters. The stone from an infant who ingested melamine-adulterated formula was also included in compositional analysis. Across three groups, the stone was only detected in 1 % melamine group, with composition of almost melamine different from the affected infant’s stone composed of melamine and uric acid with a ratio of 1:2. Compared with control group, urine calcium and phosphate excretions were significantly increased in 1 % melamine group. Urine uric acid excretion was significantly increased but citrate excretion was significantly decreased in 0.1 % and 1 % melamine groups. Urine oxalate excretion and pH were indicated without any significant difference. In addition based on urine physicochemical characters, melamine–uric acid stone seems difficult to be formed in the rats due to their characters of urine high-pH and low-uric acid. These results demonstrated that (1) the stone composition of rats fed melamine was not and could not be as that of infants fed melamine-adulterated formula, two species had a different mechanism of melamine-induced stone formation; (2) the exposure of melamine could result in abnormalities of urine metabolic lithogenic factors to rats, perhaps as well as human beings.

Keywords

MelamineRatInfantStoneUrinary metabolic lithogenic factors

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013