, Volume 67, Issue 5, pp 570-580
Date: 22 Oct 2008

Evolution and Regulation of the Downstream Gene of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α in Naked Carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii) from Lake Qinghai, China

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Abstract

The naked carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii) is a native teleost of Lake Qinghai (altitude, 3.2 km) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α of Gymnocypris przewalskii was cloned and a phylogenetic tree for vertebrate HIF-1α was constructed. By analysis of maximum likelihood models of codon substitutions for HIF-1α, three positive sites in the branch lineages of crucian carp, eelpout, and flounder, and a higher proportion of neutral sites in naked carp, antarctic eelpout, rainbow trout, and grayling, were detected among all teleosts. It seems that low habitat temperatures relax the purifying selection of HIF-1α in these stenothermal coldwater fish, and both cold and hypoxic lake water contributed to the evolution of the HIF-1α gene in the naked carp. Furthermore, Glut 1 mRNA, a gene downstream from HIF-1α, has a time-course- and tissue-specific dependent response to hypoxic challenge.