, Volume 67, Issue 1, pp 85-94
Date: 13 Jun 2008

Lineage-Specific Domain Fusion in the Evolution of Purine Nucleotide Cyclases in Cyanobacteria

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Abstract

Cyclic nucleotides (both cAMP and cGMP) play extremely important roles in cyanobacteria, such as regulating heterocyst formation, respiration, or gliding. Catalyzing the formation of cAMP and cGMP from ATP and GTP is a group of functionally important enzymes named adenylate cyclases and guanylate cyclases, respectively. To understand their evolutionary patterns, in this study, we presented a systematic analysis of all the cyclases in cyanobacterial genomes. We found that different cyanobacteria had various numbers of cyclases in view of their remarkable diversities in genome size and physiology. Most of these cyclases exhibited distinct domain architectures, which implies the versatile functions of cyanobacterial cyclases. Mapping the whole set of cyclase domain architectures from diverse prokaryotic organisms to their phylogenetic tree and detailed phylogenetic analysis of cyclase catalytic domains revealed that lineage-specific domain recruitment appeared to be the most prevailing pattern contributing to the great variability of cyanobacterial cyclase domain architectures. However, other scenarios, such as gene duplication, also occurred during the evolution of cyanobacterial cyclases. Sequence divergence seemed to contribute to the origin of putative guanylate cyclases which were found only in cyanobacteria. In conclusion, the comprehensive survey of cyclases in cyanobacteria provides novel insight into their potential evolutionary mechanisms and further functional implications.