Journal of Molecular Evolution

, Volume 57, Issue 6, pp 702–709

Evolutionary History and Mode of the amylase Multigene Family in Drosophila

  • Ze Zhang
  • Nobuyuki Inomata
  • Tsuneyuki Yamazaki
  • Hirohisa Kishino
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00239-003-2521-7

Cite this article as:
Zhang, Z., Inomata, N., Yamazaki, T. et al. J Mol Evol (2003) 57: 702. doi:10.1007/s00239-003-2521-7

Abstract

Previous studies indicate that the tandemly repeated members of the amylase (Amy) gene family evolved in a concerted manner in the melanogaster subgroup and in some other species. In this paper, we analyzed all of the 49 active and complete Amy gene sequences in Drosophila, mostly from subgenus Sophophora. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the two types of diverged Amy genes in the Drosophilamontium subgroup and Drosophilaananassae, which are located in distant chromosomal regions from each other, originated independently in different evolutionary lineages of the melanogaster group after the split of the obscura and melanogaster groups. One of the two clusters was lost after duplication in the melanogaster subgroup. Given the time, 24.9 mya, of divergence between the obscura and the melanogaster groups (Russo et al. 1995), the two duplication events were estimated to occur at about 13.96 ± 1.93 and 12.38 ± 1.76 mya in the montium subgroup and D. ananassae, respectively. An accelerated rate of amino acid changes was not observed in either lineage after these gene duplications. However, the G+C contents at the third codon positions (GC3) decreased significantly along one of the two Amy clusters both in the montium subgroup and in D.ananassae right after gene duplication. Furthermore, one of the two types of the Amy genes with a lower GC3 content has lost a specific regulatory element within the montium subgroup species and D.ananassae. While the tandemly repeated members evolved in a concerted manner, the two types of diverged Amy genes in Drosophila experienced frequent gene duplication, gene loss, and divergent evolution following the model of a birth-and-death process.

Keywords

Amylase Duplication Gene loss Birth-and-death process Drosophila 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ze Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nobuyuki Inomata
    • 3
  • Tsuneyuki Yamazaki
    • 4
  • Hirohisa Kishino
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biometrics and BioinformaticsGraduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657Japan
  2. 2.Institute for Bioinformatics Research and Development (BIRD)Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST)Japan
  3. 3.Department of BiologyGraduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581Japan
  4. 4.The Research Institute of Evolutionary Biology, 2-4-28, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-0098Japan

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