Journal of Molecular Evolution

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 322–335

JC Virus Strains Indigenous to Northeastern Siberians and Canadian Inuits Are Unique But Evolutionally Related to Those Distributed Throughout Europe and Mediterranean Areas

  • Chie Sugimoto
  • Masami  Hasegawa
  • Huai-Ying  Zheng
  • Vladimir  Demenev
  • Yoshiharu  Sekino
  • Kazuo  Kojima
  • Takeo  Honjo
  • Hiroshi  Kida
  • Tapani  Hovi
  • Timo  Vesikari
  • Jack A. Schalken
  • Kyoichi  Tomita
  • Yukari  Mitsunobu
  • Hiroshi  Ikegaya
  • Nobuyoshi  Kobayashi
  • Tadaichi  Kitamura
  • Yoshiaki  Yogo

DOI: 10.1007/s00239-001-2329-2

Cite this article as:
Sugimoto, C., Hasegawa, M., Zheng, H. et al. J Mol Evol (2002) 55: 322. doi:10.1007/s00239-001-2329-2

Human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) isolates around the world are classified into more than 10 geographically distinct genotypes (designated as subtypes). Evolutionary relationships among JCV subtypes were recently examined, and the following pattern of JCV evolution was indicated. The ancestral JCV first divided into three superclusters, designated Types A, B, and C. A split in Type A generated two subtypes, EU-a and -b, containing mainly European and Mediterranean isolates. The split in Type B generated Af 2 (the major African subtype), Bl-c (a minor European subtype), and various Asian subtypes. Type C generated a single subtype (Afl), consisting of isolates derived from western Africa. In this study, JCV isolates prevalent among northeastern Siberians and Canadian Inuits were evaluated in the context of the above-described pattern of JCV evolution. The Siberian/Arctic JCV isolates were classified as belonging mainly to Type A, based on the result of a preliminary phylogenetic analysis. We then examined, using the whole-genome approach, the phylogenetic relationships among worldwide Type A isolates. In neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood analyses, Type A JCVs worldwide consistently diverged into three subtypes, EU-a, -b, and -c, with high bootstrap probabilities. EU-c was constructed only by northeastern Siberian isolates, derived mainly from Nanais living in the lower Amur River region, and was shown to have been generated by the first split in Type A. Most Siberian/Arctic isolates derived from Chukchis, Koryaks, and Canadian Inuits formed a distinct cluster within the EU-a subtype, with a high bootstrap probability. Based on the present findings, we discuss ancient human migrations, accompanied by Type A JCVs, across Asia and to Arctic areas of North America.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chie Sugimoto
    • 1
  • Masami  Hasegawa
    • 2
  • Huai-Ying  Zheng
    • 1
  • Vladimir  Demenev
    • 4
  • Yoshiharu  Sekino
    • 5
  • Kazuo  Kojima
    • 6
  • Takeo  Honjo
    • 7
  • Hiroshi  Kida
    • 8
  • Tapani  Hovi
    • 9
  • Timo  Vesikari
    • 10
  • Jack A. Schalken
    • 11
  • Kyoichi  Tomita
    • 3
  • Yukari  Mitsunobu
    • 1
  • Hiroshi  Ikegaya
    • 12
  • Nobuyoshi  Kobayashi
    • 1
  • Tadaichi  Kitamura
    • 3
  • Yoshiaki  Yogo
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Viral Infection, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, JapanJP
  2. 2.Department of Prediction and Control, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 4-6-7 Minami-Azabu, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-8569, JapanJP
  3. 3.Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655, JapanJP
  4. 4.Department of Public Health, Administration of Khabarovsk Territory, Khabarovsk, RussiaRU
  5. 5.The Great Journey, 1-6 Wakaba, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0011, JapanJP
  6. 6.The Last Great Expedition on the Earth, 2-454 Kurashiki, Higashiyamato, Tokyo 207-0032, JapanJP
  7. 7.Himalayan Veterinary Hospital, 2-43-11 Mitsuhuji, Musashimurayama, Tokyo 208-0021, JapanJP
  8. 8.Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818, JapanJP
  9. 9.Department of Virology, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie, 166, 00300 Helsinki, FinlandFI
  10. 10.Department of Virology and Vaccine Research, University of Tampere Medical School, 33101 Tampere, FinlandFI
  11. 11.Urological Research Laboratory, University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsNL
  12. 12.Department of Forensic Medicine, The Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, JapanJP