, Volume 85, Issue 3, pp 477-512,
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On definability in some lattices of semigroup varieties


An identity of the form x 1x n x 1π x 2π x where π is a non-trivial permutation on the set {1,…,n} is called a permutation identity. If uv is a permutation identity, then (uv) [respectively r(uv)] is the maximal length of the common prefix [suffix] of the words u and v. A variety that satisfies a permutation identity is called permutative. If \(\mathcal{V}\) is a permutative variety, then \(\ell=\ell(\mathcal{V})\) [respectively \(r=r(\mathcal{V})\) ] is the least [respectively r] such that \(\mathcal{V}\) satisfies a permutation identity τ with (τ)= [respectively r(τ)=r]. A variety that consists of nil-semigroups is called a nil-variety. If Σ is a set of identities, then \(\operatorname {var}\varSigma\) denotes the variety of semigroups defined by Σ. If \(\mathcal{V}\) is a variety, then \(L (\mathcal{V})\) denotes the lattice of all subvarieties of \(\mathcal{V}\) .

For ,r≥0 and n>1 let \(\mathfrak{B}_{\ell,r,n}\) denote the set that consists of n! identities of the form $$t_1\cdots t_\ell x_1x_2 \cdots x_n z_{1}\cdots z_{r}\approx t_1\cdots t_\ell x_{1\pi}x_{2\pi} \cdots x_{n\pi}z_{1}\cdots z_{r}, $$ where π is a permutation on the set {1,…,n}. We prove that for each permutative nil-variety \(\mathcal{V}\) and each \(\ell\ge\ell(\mathcal{V})\) and \(r\ge r(\mathcal{V})\) there exists n>1 such that \(\mathcal{V}\) is definable by a first-order formula in \(L(\operatorname{var}{\mathfrak{B}}_{l,r,n})\) if r or \(\mathcal{V}\) is definable up to duality in \(L(\operatorname{var}{\mathfrak{B}}_{\ell,r,n})\) if =r.

Dedicated to the memory of Jaroslav Ježek.
Communicated by Mikhail Volkov.
M. Grech was partially sponsored by Polish grant MNiSW N201 543038.