, Volume 194, Issue 2, pp 77-89

Phosphatidylinositol Phosphate Kinases Put PI4,5P2 in Its Place

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Abstract

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PI4,5P2) is a critical second messenger that regulates a myriad of diverse cellular activities including modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, vesicle trafficking, focal adhesion formation, and nuclear events. In order to effectively regulate these disparate cellular events, synthesis of PI4,5P2 by phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIP kinases) must be both spatially and temporally regulated. Two subfamilies of PIP kinases, types I and II, allow the generation of PI4,5P2 from independent pools of substrate, PI(4)P and PI(5)P respectively. In turn, type I and II PIP kinases show different subcellular localization and thus are involved in distinct signaling pathways. Additionally, several type I isoforms, and their splice variants, have now been shown to be differentially localized throughout the cell and to be involved in the synthesis of PI4,5P2 at distinct sites. These findings implicate PIP kinases as the major regulators of PI4,5P2-mediated events, making them key signaling enzymes in a variety of processes. Understanding the mechanisms regulating spatial and temporal synthesis of PI4,5P2 by PIP kinases is vital for understanding these processes as a whole. This review examines both structural and regulatory features that modulate activity, localization, and substrate usage of PIPKs.