, Volume 159, Issue 9, pp 2051-2059
Date: 04 Jul 2012

Impact of ocean warming on the early ontogeny of cephalopods: a metabolic approach

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The impact of a realistic warming scenario on the metabolic physiology of early cephalopod (squid Loligo vulgaris and cuttlefish Sepia officinalis) life stages was investigated. During exposure to the warming conditions (19 °C for the western coast of Portugal in 2100), the increase in oxygen consumption rates throughout embryogenesis was much steeper in squid (28-fold increase) than in cuttlefish (11-fold increase). The elevated catabolic activity–accelerated oxygen depletion within egg capsules, which exacerbated metabolic suppression toward the end of embryogenesis. Squid late-stage embryos appear to be more impacted by warming via metabolic suppression than cuttlefish embryos. At all temperature scenarios, the transition from encapsulated embryos to planktonic paralarvae implied metabolic increments higher than 100 %. Contrary to the nektobenthic strategy of cuttlefish newborns, the planktonic squid paralarvae rely predominantly on pulsed jet locomotion that dramatically increases their energy requirements. In the future, hatchlings will require more food per unit body size and, thus, feeding intake success will be crucial, especially for squid with high metabolic rates and low levels of metabolic reserves.

Communicated by H. O. Pörtner.