, Volume 157, Issue 9, pp 1989-2000
Date: 14 May 2010

Population structure and phylogeography of an acorn barnacle with induced defense and its gastropod predator in the Gulf of California

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Using sequence variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I locus, we estimated the population structure and phylogeography of the intertidal acorn barnacle, Chthamalus anisopoma, and its gastropod predator, Mexacanthina lugubris angelica. Both are endemic to the Gulf of California, being derived from taxa on the Pacific coast of the Baja peninsula, and both exhibit phenotypic plasticity for traits affecting their coevolutionary interactions. Consistent with expectations based on differences in dispersal, C. anisopoma populations generally lack geographic structure, while those of M. l. angelica are more strongly structured. However, the variable degree of differentiation in both species suggests that the extent of reciprocal selection and local adaptation in the species will vary geographically, a result consistent with the concept of a geographic mosaic of coevolution. The pattern of variation in C. anisopoma shows clear evidence of recent spatial expansion, possibly due to increased habitat availability following the last glacial maximum. Phylogeographic analyses suggest that M. l. angelica diversified into three distinct clades after the colonization of the Gulf. Overall, our results illustrate how dispersal potential, geological and climatic events, and recent population growth have impacted the pattern of sequence variation in the two species.

Communicated by C. Riginos.