Marine Biology

, 156:1375

Phylogeography of California and Galápagos sea lions and population structure within the California sea lion

Authors

    • Facultad de Ciencias MarinasUniversidad Autónoma de Baja California
  • S. L. Mesnick
    • Protected Resources Division, Southwest Fisheries Science CenterNOAA Fisheries
  • J. de la Rosa
    • Facultad de Ciencias MarinasUniversidad Autónoma de Baja California
  • D. M. Palacios
    • Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric ResearchUniversity of Hawaii
    • Environmental Research Division, Southwest Fisheries Science CenterNOAA Fisheries
  • M. S. Lowry
    • Protected Resources Division, Southwest Fisheries Science CenterNOAA Fisheries
  • D. Aurioles-Gamboa
    • Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias MarinasInstituto Politécnico Nacional. Ave. IPN s/n
  • H. M. Snell
    • Charles Darwin Research StationCharles Darwin Foundation
    • Museum of Southwestern Biology, Department of BiologyUniversity of New México
  • S. Escorza-Treviño
    • Department of Biological SciencesCalifornia State University Los Angeles
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00227-009-1178-1

Cite this article as:
Schramm, Y., Mesnick, S.L., de la Rosa, J. et al. Mar Biol (2009) 156: 1375. doi:10.1007/s00227-009-1178-1

Abstract

We investigate the phylogeography of California (Zalophus californianus) and Galápagos (Z. wollebaeki) sea lions and describe within-population structure for the California sea lion based on mitochondrial DNA. Fifty control-region haplotypes were found, 41 from Z. californianus and 9 from Z. wollebaeki, with three fixed differences between the two species. Ranked population boundaries along the range of Z. californianus were defined based on the Monmonier Maximum Difference Algorithm, resulting in five genetically distinct populations, two in the Pacific Ocean and three inside the Gulf of California. A Minimum Spanning Network showed a strong phylogeographic signal with two well-defined clusters, Z. californianus and Z. wollebaeki, separated by six base-pair differences, supporting the existence of two genetically distinct species with an estimated divergence time of ~0.8 Ma. Results are discussed in the context of the historical geologic and paleoceanographic events of the last 1 Ma in the eastern Pacific.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009