Marine Biology

, Volume 146, Issue 1, pp 103–117

Genetic and reproductive differentiation of Artemia franciscana in a new environment

  • I. Kappas
  • T. J. Abatzopoulos
  • N. Van Hoa
  • P. Sorgeloos
  • J. A. Beardmore
Research Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00227-004-1420-9

Cite this article as:
Kappas, I., Abatzopoulos, T.J., Van Hoa, N. et al. Marine Biology (2004) 146: 103. doi:10.1007/s00227-004-1420-9

Abstract

The nature and speed of intraspecific genetic differentiation between the Artemia population native to San Francisco Bay (SFB) and populations resulting from introduction of SFB material into Vietnam (Vinh Chau, VC) have been investigated from a multidisciplinary perspective using reproductive characters, allozymes and mitochondrial DNA. Rapid divergence between SFB and VC Artemia is evident from an analysis of five reproductive traits at the temperatures of 26°C and 30°C. The VC strain seems to be better adapted to high temperature, as gauged by the significantly higher reproductive output displayed compared with SFB Artemia. Analysis of variance confirms the existence of a strong genetic component involved in the determination of encystment. Allozyme analysis (20 loci) of the same strains reveals considerable genetic differences between samples, cultured at the above temperatures. Combined probability values for tests of allele frequency homogeneity pooled over all polymorphic loci, at 30°C as well as between temperatures, are 0.015 and 0.026, respectively. In addition, cluster analysis shows evidence of differentiation of Vietnamese Artemia from the wild (SFB) stock as early as within a year after inoculation. Mitochondrial DNA RFLP markers show similar patterns of genetic differentiation to those seen with allozymes and reproductive traits. However, unlike allozymes, there is strong evidence of a reduction in haplotype diversity from 40.6% in SFB Artemia to 10.5% in the established VC strain. Although genetic drift could account for much of the depletion in gene diversity, firm indications are obtained of selective forces shaping the gene pool in the tropical conditions of Vietnam. The brine shrimp is an invaluable genetic system for fine-scale studies of microevolutionary divergence, and multidisciplinary studies are likely to be of both fundamental and practical value for such inquiries.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Kappas
    • 1
  • T. J. Abatzopoulos
    • 1
  • N. Van Hoa
    • 2
  • P. Sorgeloos
    • 3
  • J. A. Beardmore
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Genetics, Development and Molecular BiologyAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Institute of Marine AquacultureUniversity of Can ThoCan ThoVietnam
  3. 3.Laboratory of Aquaculture and Artemia Reference CenterGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  4. 4.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of Wales SwanseaSwanseaUK

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