Marine Biology

, Volume 141, Issue 6, pp 1109–1115

Substrate preferences of a non-colonial kamptozoan, and its interactions with bryozoan hosts

  •  E. Yakovis

DOI: 10.1007/s00227-002-0902-x

Cite this article as:
Yakovis, E. Marine Biology (2002) 141: 1109. doi:10.1007/s00227-002-0902-x


Results of substrate preference analysis for Loxosomellanordgaardi Ryland (Kamptozoa: Loxosomatidae) found in association with various bryozoan species in the White Sea are presented. Local water-current patterns, for the first time observed and documented in bryozoan colonies inhabited by non-colonial entoprocts, indicate the direct dependence of kamptozoans' feeding activity on the bryozoan host. It is shown that because of the way their individuals integrate into the colony-wide water-current system both species may gain from this association. L. nordgaardi also demonstrates a strong preference for living bryozoan colonies relatively to other possible substrate types. It is thus probable that entoprocts are involved in specific ecological interactions with bryozoans.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  •  E. Yakovis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Faculty of Biology and Soil Science, St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya nab. 7/9, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia
  2. 2.Present address: Veteranov 105-23, St. Petersburg, 198261, Russia, e-mail: