Marine Biology

, Volume 141, Issue 6, pp 1109–1115

Substrate preferences of a non-colonial kamptozoan, and its interactions with bryozoan hosts


  •  E. Yakovis
    • Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Faculty of Biology and Soil Science, St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya nab. 7/9, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia

DOI: 10.1007/s00227-002-0902-x

Cite this article as:
Yakovis, E. Marine Biology (2002) 141: 1109. doi:10.1007/s00227-002-0902-x


Results of substrate preference analysis for Loxosomellanordgaardi Ryland (Kamptozoa: Loxosomatidae) found in association with various bryozoan species in the White Sea are presented. Local water-current patterns, for the first time observed and documented in bryozoan colonies inhabited by non-colonial entoprocts, indicate the direct dependence of kamptozoans' feeding activity on the bryozoan host. It is shown that because of the way their individuals integrate into the colony-wide water-current system both species may gain from this association. L. nordgaardi also demonstrates a strong preference for living bryozoan colonies relatively to other possible substrate types. It is thus probable that entoprocts are involved in specific ecological interactions with bryozoans.

Download to read the full article text

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2002