, Volume 41, Issue 6, pp 463-475
Date: 24 Oct 2006

Regular cambial activity and xylem and phloem formation in locally heated and cooled stem portions of Norway spruce

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Abstract

The effect of heating (23–25°C) and cooling (9–11°C) on regular cambial activity and xylem and phloem formation in the stem portion of Norway spruce was investigated. Adult trees were sampled at 21-day intervals during the 2005 vegetation period. Continuously elevated temperatures increased the rate of cell division in the first part of the growing season, but did not significantly prolong cambial activity at the end of the vegetation period in the heated tree. Low-temperature treatments shortened regular cambial activity and slowed down cell production. The xylem growth ring was wider in the heated sample and narrower in the cooled sample compared to the control. The temperature in the cambial region was only negligibly transferred along the stem from the site of its application. In general, the temperature in the cambium was affected by a long-term rise or drop in air temperatures. Both experiments affected the structure and width of phloem growth increments. The tangential band of the axial parenchyma was not continuous in the cooled sample. The number of late phloem cells was reduced in the cool-treated sample and increased in the heat-treated sample. Our experiments confirmed the effect of constantly increased or decreased temperatures on regular cambial activity in Norway spruce.