Nearly-Linear Work Parallel SDD Solvers, Low-Diameter Decomposition, and Low-Stretch Subgraphs

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We present the design and analysis of a nearly-linear work parallel algorithm for solving symmetric diagonally dominant (SDD) linear systems. On input an SDD n-by-n matrix A with m nonzero entries and a vector b, our algorithm computes a vector \(\tilde{x}\) such that \(\|\tilde{x} - A^{+}b\|_{A} \leq\varepsilon\cdot\|{A^{+}b}\|_{A}\) in \(O(m\log^{O(1)}{n}\log {\frac{1}{\varepsilon}})\) work and \(O(m^{1/3+\theta}\log\frac{1}{\varepsilon})\) depth for any θ>0, where A + denotes the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse of A.

The algorithm relies on a parallel algorithm for generating low-stretch spanning trees or spanning subgraphs. To this end, we first develop a parallel decomposition algorithm that in O(mlog O(1) n) work and polylogarithmic depth, partitions a graph with n nodes and m edges into components with polylogarithmic diameter such that only a small fraction of the original edges are between the components. This can be used to generate low-stretch spanning trees with average stretch O(n α ) in O(mlog O(1) n) work and O(n α ) depth for any α>0. Alternatively, it can be used to generate spanning subgraphs with polylogarithmic average stretch in O(mlog O(1) n) work and polylogarithmic depth. We apply this subgraph construction to derive a parallel linear solver.

By using this solver in known applications, our results imply improved parallel randomized algorithms for several problems, including single-source shortest paths, maximum flow, minimum-cost flow, and approximate maximum flow.