, Volume 60, Issue 5, pp 467-472
Date: 11 Mar 2014

Stable Transfection of Nonosteogenic Cell Lines with Tissue Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Enhances Mineral Deposition Both in the Presence and Absence of β-Glycerophosphate: Possible Role for Alkaline Phosphatase in Pathological Mineralization

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Abstract.

It is documented that alkaline phosphatase (AP) plays an important role in bone mineralization. Considering that TN-AP is expressed in periodontal ligament fibroblasts, renal epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells, and that TN-AP is both a calcium-/phosphate-binding protein and a phosphohydrolytic enzyme, we hypothesize that membrane-bound AP also plays an important role in the initiation of physiological and pathological mineralizations in tissues other than bone and cartilage. To test this hypothesis, nonosteoblast cell lines, including a fibroblast line, a renal epithelial line, and a capillary endothelial line, were stably transfected to express high levels of rat bone AP on their cell surfaces. These rat bone AP-expressing cells were then cultured on filter membranes in the presence or absence of β-glycerol phosphate. von Kossa staining for calcium phosphate and transmission electron microscopy with electron diffraction analysis for minerals were employed to investigate the effect of membrane AP on extracellular calcium phosphate mineralization. Our results indicated that AP expression on these nonosteoblast-like cell surfaces have induced extracellular hydroxyapatite (HAP) mineralization. Our findings support the concept that membrane-bound AP contributes to extracellular apatitic mineralization by mechanisms that do not necessarily involve its hydrolase activity. They also suggest that AP might be important for the initiation of pathological mineralization in nonosteogenic tissues.

Received: 11 January 1996 / Accepted: 31 October 1996