Original Research

Calcified Tissue International

, Volume 92, Issue 5, pp 418-428

First online:

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging Parameters Describing Acid Phosphate Substitution in Biologic Hydroxyapatite

  • Lyudmila SpevakAffiliated withHospital for Special Surgery
  • , Carol R. FlachAffiliated withRutgers University
  • , Tracey HunterAffiliated withHospital for Special Surgery
  • , Richard MendelsohnAffiliated withRutgers University
  • , Adele BoskeyAffiliated withHospital for Special Surgery Email author 

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Acid phosphate substitution into mineralized tissues is an important determinant of their mechanical properties and their response to treatment. This study identifies and validates Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIRI) spectral parameters that provide information on the acid phosphate (HPO4) substitution into hydroxyapatite in developing mineralized tissues. Curve fitting and Fourier self-deconvolution were used to identify subband positions in model compounds (with and without HPO4). The intensity of subbands at 1127 and 1110 cm−1 correlated with the acid phosphate content in these models. Peak height ratios of these subbands to the ν3 vibration at 1096 cm−1 found in stoichiometric apatite were evaluated in the model compounds and mixtures thereof. FTIRI spectra of bones and teeth at different developmental ages were analyzed using these spectral parameters. Factor analysis (a chemometric technique) was also conducted on the tissue samples and resulted in factor loadings with spectral features corresponding to the HPO4 vibrations described above. Images of both factor correlation coefficients and the peak height ratios 1127/1096 and 1112/1096 cm−1 demonstrated higher acid phosphate content in younger vs. more mature regions in the same specimen. Maps of the distribution of acid phosphate content will be useful for characterizing the extent of new bone formation, the areas of potential decreased strength, and the effects of therapies such as those used in metabolic bone diseases (osteoporosis, chronic kidney disease) on mineral composition. Because of the wider range of values obtained with the 1127/1096 cm−1 parameter compared to the 1110/1096 cm−1 parameter and the smaller scatter in the slope, it is suggested that this ratio should be the parameter of choice.


FTIR imaging Hydroxyapatite Bone mineral Dentin mineral Acid phosphate