, Volume 92, Issue 3, pp 217-227
Date: 29 Nov 2012

The Relationship Among Hypertension, Antihypertensive Medications, and Osteoporosis: A Narrative Review

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Abstract

Osteoporosis and hypertension are two frequent diseases among the aging population that share a similar etiopathology and often coexist. Moreover, treatment of hypertension affects bone mineral density and, therefore, can worsen osteoporosis. This narrative review considers the influence of the main etiologic factors that contribute to the development of hypertension and osteoporosis and examines the effect of the most often used antihypertensives on bones. A computerized literature search of relevant English publications regarding the etiology of hypertension and osteoporosis as well as the impact of antihypertensives on osteoporosis from 1996 to 2011 was completed in October 2011. The latest update in the search was performed from May to June 2012. The most relevant nongenetic factors in the etiology of osteoporosis and hypertension are low calcium intake, vitamin D and vitamin K deficiency, high consumption of sodium salt, and the effects of different forms of nitric oxide. Thiazide diuretics are the only antihypertensives that have a positive influence on bone mineral density. For other antihypertensive drugs, the data are conflicting, indicating that they may have a potentially negative or positive influence on bone mineral density and fracture risk reduction. Some studies did not find a correlation between the use of antihypertensives and bone mineral density. Due to the frequent coexistence of hypertension and osteoporosis, when selecting long-term antihypertensive therapy the potential effects of antihypertensive drugs on development, worsening, or improvement of osteoporosis should also be considered.

The authors have stated that they have no conflict of interest.