, Volume 82, Issue 3, pp 171-181

Influence of Calcium Intake and Physical Activity on Proximal Femur Bone Mass and Structure Among Pre- and Postmenopausal Women. A 10-Year Prospective Study

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Abstract

This 10-year follow-up evaluated the effect of physical activity and calcium intake on proximal femur bone mass (BMC) and structural indices (CSA and Z) and physical performance. A cohort of 133 premenopausal and 134 postmenopausal women with contrasting levels of physical activity (high [PA+]) and low [PA]) and calcium intake (high [Ca+] and low [Ca]) was measured with DXA at baseline and 5 and 10 years thereafter. Among premenopausal women, the mean (95% CI) femoral neck BMC was 3.8% (−0.1 to 7.8%) and the trochanter BMC 6.7% (2.4 to 11.3%) greater in the PA+ group than the PA group. There was no difference between the Ca-intake groups. Among postmenopausal women, the mean femoral neck BMC was 4.2% (−0.2 to 8.8%) greater in the Ca+ group than in the Ca group and 6.9% (2.2 to11.8%) greater in the PA+ group than in the PA group. For trochanter BMC, the corresponding differences were 2.7% (−1.6 to 7.2%) and 5.5% (0.9 to 10.3%). The mean differences in CSA and Z were 3.8% (−0.9 to 8.7%) and 4.4% (−2.1 to 11.4%) in favor of the Ca+ group and 6.8% (1.9 to 12.0%) and 9.6% (2.5 to 17.1%) in favor of the PA+ group, respectively. Proximal femur BMC declined generally, but the initial differences between the physical activity and the calcium intake groups were maintained. High calcium intake seemed to slow the decline in trochanter BMC in premenopausal women, while high physical activity was beneficial for proximal femur, particularly among older women.