On the uniqueness of smooth, stationary black holes in vacuum
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- Ionescu, A. & Klainerman, S. Invent. math. (2009) 175: 35. doi:10.1007/s00222-008-0146-6
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A fundamental conjecture in general relativity asserts that the domain of outer communication of a regular, stationary, four dimensional, vacuum black hole solution is isometrically diffeomorphic to the domain of outer communication of a Kerr black hole. So far the conjecture has been resolved, by combining results of Hawking , Carter  and Robinson , under the additional hypothesis of non-degenerate horizons and real analyticity of the space-time. We develop a new strategy to bypass analyticity based on a tensorial characterization of the Kerr solutions, due to Mars , and new geometric Carleman estimates. We prove, under a technical assumption (an identity relating the Ernst potential and the Killing scalar) on the bifurcate sphere of the event horizon, that the domain of outer communication of a smooth, regular, stationary Einstein vacuum spacetime of dimension 4 is locally isometric to the domain of outer communication of a Kerr spacetime.