Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 232, Issue 9, pp 2709–2719

Acute over-the-counter pharmacological intervention does not adversely affect behavioral outcome following diffuse traumatic brain injury in the mouse

  • Jordan L. Harrison
  • Rachel K. Rowe
  • Bruce F. O’Hara
  • P. David Adelson
  • Jonathan Lifshitz
Research Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00221-014-3948-3

Cite this article as:
Harrison, J.L., Rowe, R.K., O’Hara, B.F. et al. Exp Brain Res (2014) 232: 2709. doi:10.1007/s00221-014-3948-3

Abstract

Following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), patients may self-treat symptoms of concussion, including post-traumatic headache, taking over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics. Administering one dose of OTC analgesics immediately following experimental brain injury mimics the at-home treated population of concussed patients and may accelerate the understanding of the relationship between brain injury and OTC pharmacological intervention. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute administration of OTC analgesics on neurological function and cortical cytokine levels after experimental diffuse TBI in the mouse. Adult, male C57BL/6 mice were injured using a midline fluid percussion (mFPI) injury model of concussion (6–10 min righting reflex time for brain-injured mice). Experimental groups included mFPI paired with either ibuprofen (60 mg/kg, i.p.; n = 16), acetaminophen (40 mg/kg, i.p.; n = 9), or vehicle (15 % ethanol (v/v) in 0.9 % saline; n = 13) and sham injury paired OTC medicine or vehicle (n = 7–10 per group). At 24 h after injury, functional outcome was assessed using the rotarod task and a modified neurological severity score. Following behavior assessment, cortical cytokine levels were measured by multiplex ELISA at 24 h post-injury. To evaluate efficacy on acute inflammation, cortical cytokine levels were measured also at 6 h post-injury. In the diffuse brain-injured mouse, immediate pharmacological intervention did not attenuate or exacerbate TBI-induced functional deficits. Cortical cytokine levels were affected by injury, time, or their interaction. However, levels were not affected by treatment at 6 or 24 h post-injury. These data indicate that acute administration of OTC analgesics did not exacerbate or attenuate brain-injury deficits which may inform clinical recommendations for the at-home treated mildly concussed patient.

Keywords

TBI Inflammation NSAID Sleep Mouse Analgesic 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jordan L. Harrison
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rachel K. Rowe
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    • 7
  • Bruce F. O’Hara
    • 6
    • 7
  • P. David Adelson
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jonathan Lifshitz
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.BARROW Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children’s HospitalPhoenixUSA
  2. 2.Department of Child HealthUniversity of Arizona College of Medicine-PhoenixPhoenixUSA
  3. 3.Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in NeuroscienceArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  4. 4.Phoenix Veteran Affairs Healthcare SystemPhoenixUSA
  5. 5.Department of Anatomy and NeurobiologyUniversity of Kentucky College of MedicineLexingtonUSA
  6. 6.Department of BiologyUniversity of Kentucky College of Arts and SciencesLexingtonUSA
  7. 7.Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center (SCoBIRC)University of Kentucky College of MedicineLexingtonUSA

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