# The Birth of the Infinite Cluster:¶Finite-Size Scaling in Percolation

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DOI: 10.1007/s002200100521

- Cite this article as:
- Borgs, C., Chayes, J., Kesten, H. et al. Commun. Math. Phys. (2001) 224: 153. doi:10.1007/s002200100521

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## Abstract:

We address the question of finite-size scaling in percolation by studying bond percolation in a finite box of side length *n*, both in two and in higher dimensions. In dimension *d*= 2, we obtain a complete characterization of finite-size scaling. In dimensions *d*>2, we establish the same results under a set of hypotheses related to so-called scaling and hyperscaling postulates which are widely believed to hold up to *d*= 6.

As a function of the size of the box, we determine the scaling window in which the system behaves critically. We characterize criticality in terms of the scaling of the sizes of the largest clusters in the box: incipient infinite clusters which give rise to the infinite cluster. Within the scaling window, we show that the size of the largest cluster behaves like *n*^{d}π_{n}, where π_{n} is the probability at criticality that the origin is connected to the boundary of a box of radius *n*. We also show that, inside the window, there are typically many clusters of scale *n*^{d}π_{n}, and hence that “the” incipient infinite cluster is not unique. Below the window, we show that the size of the largest cluster scales like ξ^{d}π_{ξ} log(*n*/ξ), where ξ is the correlation length, and again, there are many clusters of this scale. Above the window, we show that the size of the largest cluster scales like *n*^{d}*P*_{∞}, where *P*_{∞} is the infinite cluster density, and that there is only one cluster of this scale. Our results are finite-dimensional analogues of results on the dominant component of the Erdős–Rényi mean-field random graph model.