, Volume 273, Issue 3, pp 619-636
Date: 06 Mar 2007

On the Distinguishability of Random Quantum States

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Abstract

We develop two analytic lower bounds on the probability of success p of identifying a state picked from a known ensemble of pure states: a bound based on the pairwise inner products of the states, and a bound based on the eigenvalues of their Gram matrix. We use the latter, and results from random matrix theory, to lower bound the asymptotic distinguishability of ensembles of n random quantum states in d dimensions, where n/d approaches a constant. In particular, for almost all ensembles of n states in n dimensions, p > 0.72. An application to distinguishing Boolean functions (the “oracle identification problem”) in quantum computation is given.

Communicated by M.B. Ruskai