Ward Identities and Chiral Anomaly in the Luttinger Liquid
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- Benfatto, G. & Mastropietro, V. Commun. Math. Phys. (2005) 258: 609. doi:10.1007/s00220-005-1364-z
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Systems of interacting non-relativistic fermions in d =1, as well as spin chains or interacting two dimensional Ising models, verify an hidden approximate Gauge invariance which can be used to derive suitable Ward identities. Despite the presence of corrections and anomalies, such Ward identities can be implemented in a Renormalization Group approach and used to exploit nontrivial cancellations which allow to control the flow of the running coupling constants; in particular this is achieved combining Ward identities, Dyson equations and suitable correction identities for the extra terms appearing in the Ward identities, due to the presence of cutoffs breaking the local gauge symmetry. The correlations can be computed and show a Luttinger liquid behavior characterized by non-universal critical indices, so that the general Luttinger liquid construction for one dimensional systems is completed without any use of exact solutions. The ultraviolet cutoff can be removed and a Quantum Field Theory corresponding to the Thirring model is also constructed.