, Volume 227, Issue 4, pp 979-988
Date: 08 Jan 2008

Effect of fermentation conditions on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity of Lupinus angustifolius cv. zapaton

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Abstract

To study the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity of Lupinus angustifolious cv. zapaton, two different types of fermentation processes were performed. Solid-state fermentations in cracked seeds carried out by Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae and Bacillus subtilis and liquid state fermentations in flour and cracked seeds carried out by the microbial population present in the seed (natural fermentation) or by L. plantarum inocula. Antioxidant compounds that were quantified included vitamin C by micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis, vitamin E isomers by high performance liquid chromatography, total phenolic compounds (TPC) by spectrophotometry and reduced glutathione (GSH) by spectrofluorimetry. The antioxidant capacity was analysed by determining the superoxide dismutase-like activity (SOD-like activity), Peroxyl Radical-Trapping Capacity (PRTC) and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and by in vitro methods using unilamellar liposomes of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC). In general, fermentation process produced a reduction in vitamin C, vitamin E activity, GSH and SOD-like activity, however TPC, PRTC, TEAC and inhibition of PC peroxidation increased under most of the fermentation conditions. Optimal results to obtain functional lupin products were achieved in cracked seeds fermented with B. subtilis where increases in TPC content, PRTC, inhibition of PC peroxidation and TEAC content of 490, 669, 492 and 224%, respectively, were found. Also, fermentation carried out with L. plantarum in lupin flours and naturally in cracked seeds caused smaller, although significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in TPC, PRTC, inhibition of PC and TEAC (80–148, 50–90, 23 and 45–65%, respectively).