European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 223, Issue 2, pp 149–179

Milk allergens, their characteristics and their detection in food: A review

  • Linda Monaci
  • Virginie Tregoat
  • Arjon J. van Hengel
  • Elke Anklam
Review Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00217-005-0178-8

Cite this article as:
Monaci, L., Tregoat, V., van Hengel, A.J. et al. Eur Food Res Technol (2006) 223: 149. doi:10.1007/s00217-005-0178-8

Abstract

Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is one of the most common food allergies in childhood. This allergy is normally outgrown in the first year of life, however 15% of allergic children remain allergic. Many studies have been carried out to define and characterise the allergens involved in CMA and described two major allergens: casein (αs1-CN) and β-lactoglobulin. In addition to this, many other milk proteins are antigenic and capable of inducing immune responses. Milk from sheep or goats differs from cow's milk (CM) in terms of composition and allergenic properties. Food processing such as heating affects the stability, structure and intermolecular interactions of CM proteins, thereby changing the allergenic capacity. Chemical and proteolytic treatments of milk to obtain milk hydrolysates have been developed to reduce allergic reactions. Prevention of CMA largely relies on avoidance of all food products containing cow's milk. To achieve this, interest has focused on the development of various technologies for detecting and measuring the presence of milk allergens in food products by immunoassays or proteomic approaches. This review describes the technologies implemented for the analysis of milk allergens (allergenicity, biochemistry) as well as their potential detection in food matrices.

Key words

Milk allergy Milk proteins Processing Analytical methods Milk hydrolysates Immunotherapy 

Abbreviations

AA

amino acid

AGE

advanced-glycation-end-products

ALA

α-lactalbumin

β-LG

β-lactoglobulins

BSA

bovine serum albumin

CE

capillary electrophoresis

C-ELISA

competitive ELISA

CM

cow's milk

CMA

cow's milk allergy

CMI

cow's milk intolerance

CML

carboxymethyl lysine

CNs

caseins; αS1-, αS2-, β-, κ-, γ-caseins

Da

dalton

DBPCFC

double blind placebo controlled food challenge

2DE

2 dimensional electrophoresis

2D-PAGE

2 dimensional-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

EAST

enzyme allergosorbent test

eHF

extensive hydrolysed formula

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ESI

electrospray-ionisation

HIC

hydrophobic interaction chromatography

HPLC

high performance liquid chromatography

Ig

immunoglobulins (IgG; IgE)

LAB

lactic acid bacteria

LC-MS

liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

LF

lactoferrin

LOAEL

lowest observed adverse-effect levels

MALDI

matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionisation

NFDM

non-fat dry milk

NOAEL

no-observed-adverse-effect level

pHF

partial hydrolysed formula

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

mg/kg

part per million

RAST

radio-allergosorbent test

RIE

rocket immuno-electrophoresis

RP

reversed phase

S-ELISA

sandwich ELISA

SPT

skin-prick test

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda Monaci
    • 1
  • Virginie Tregoat
    • 1
  • Arjon J. van Hengel
    • 1
  • Elke Anklam
    • 1
  1. 1.European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research CentreInstitute for Reference Materials and MeasurementsRetiesewegBelgium

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