Brovada is an ancient traditional product from the northeast Italian region, included in any list of typical Italian products, which is obtained by natural fermentation of turnips (Brassica rapa). Turnips are cleaned and put in vats, alternating them with a layer of grape skins. Before covering the vat a mix of water and salt or water only is added. The vegetable fermentation is a spontaneous process caused by the microorganisms present on the various components (turnip and grape skins). A total 225 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 63 yeasts were isolated during this natural fermentation process. The main heterofermentative population was identified as
Lactobacillus spp. while the major homofermentative LAB were Pediococcus spp., Candida spp. was the main yeast present. During the first 24 h of fermentation, the pH decreased rapidly to 3.7. At different steps of fermentation the headspace aroma compounds of
brovada were analyzed by solid-phase-micro-extraction/gas chromatography/flame ionization detection to define the characteristic aroma profile of this particular product.