Parenti, A., Spugnoli, P., Calamai, L. et al. Eur Food Res Technol (2004) 218: 360. doi:10.1007/s00217-003-0866-1
Pre-fermentation cold maceration of must by the direct addition of two cryogens was studied. The experiments were conducted on Sangiovese grape from a typical Chianti vineyard in the year 2001 with two cryogens (solid state carbon dioxide and liquid nitrogen) and at various temperatures (from −5 to +5 °C) in 500-L batches for 48 h. The wines obtained were characterized by chemical analyses and sensory evaluation, and higher quality resulted as seen from the analytical and sensory characteristics with higher extraction of polyphenolic compounds at lower cold maceration temperature. Liquid nitrogen was more effective than solid carbon dioxide at the same temperature. Proportional increase of wine quality with lower cold maceration temperature was observed for solid carbon dioxide. Further investigation is needed to establish the management protocol, a proper engineering of this technique, and to evaluate its economical advantages.