Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 406, Issue 17, pp 4063–4088

Human biomonitoring of emerging pollutants through non-invasive matrices: state of the art and future potential

Authors

    • Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO NV)
    • Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of Antwerp
  • Agnieszka Kucharska
    • Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO NV)
    • Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of Antwerp
  • Claudio Erratico
    • Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of Antwerp
  • Fuchao Xu
    • Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of Antwerp
  • Elly Den Hond
    • Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO NV)
  • Gudrun Koppen
    • Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO NV)
  • Guido Vanermen
    • Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO NV)
  • Adrian Covaci
    • Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of Antwerp
  • Stefan Voorspoels
    • Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO NV)
Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00216-014-7748-1

Cite this article as:
Alves, A., Kucharska, A., Erratico, C. et al. Anal Bioanal Chem (2014) 406: 4063. doi:10.1007/s00216-014-7748-1

Abstract

Human biomonitoring (HBM) is a scientific technique that allows us to assess whether and to what extent environmental pollutants enter humans. We review here the current HBM efforts for organophosphate esters, emerging flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl substances, and phthalate esters. Use of some of these chemicals has already been banned or restricted; they are regularly detected in the environment, wildlife, and human matrices. Traditionally, blood and urine collection have been widely used as sampling methods. New non-invasive approaches (e.g., saliva, hair, nails) are emerging as valid alternatives since they offer advantages with respect to sampling, handling, and ethical aspects, while ensuring similar reliability and sensitivity. Nevertheless, the identification of biomarkers of exposure is often difficult because chemicals may be metabolized in the human body. For many of the above-mentioned compounds, the mechanisms of the favorable metabolization pathways have not been unraveled, but research on important metabolites that could be used as biomarkers of exposure is growing. This review summarizes the state of the art regarding human exposure to, (non-invasive) HBM of, and metabolism of major organophosphate esters, emerging flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl substances, and phthalate esters currently detected in the environment.

https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1007%2Fs00216-014-7748-1/MediaObjects/216_2014_7748_Figa_HTML.gif
Figure

Human biomonitoring of emerging contaminants-non-invasive versus invasive matrices

Keywords

Organophosphate estersPhthalate estersPerfluoroalkyl substancesEmerging brominated flame retardantsNon-invasiveBiomonitoring

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014