Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 405, Issue 30, pp 9669–9683

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) misuse in athletes and potential methods for detection

  • Nishan Guha
  • David A. Cowan
  • Peter H. Sönksen
  • Richard I. G. Holt
Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00216-013-7229-y

Cite this article as:
Guha, N., Cowan, D.A., Sönksen, P.H. et al. Anal Bioanal Chem (2013) 405: 9669. doi:10.1007/s00216-013-7229-y
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Anti-doping Analysis

Abstract

To athletes, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an attractive performance-enhancing drug, particularly as an alternative to growth hormone (GH) because IGF-I mediates many of the anabolic actions of GH. IGF-I has beneficial effects on muscle protein synthesis and glycogen storage that could enhance performance in several sporting disciplines. Recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) is used in clinical practice, but a variety of IGF-I compounds and IGF-I analogues are also advertised on the internet and many have been available on the black market for several years. Although methods for detecting GH misuse are now well established and there have been several cases in which athletes have tested positive for GH, no test is yet in place for detecting IGF-I misuse. The GH-2004 research group has been investigating methods for detection of IGF-I misuse and a test is being developed on the basis of the principles of the successful GH-2000 marker method, in which markers from the IGF axis and markers of collagen and bone turnover are used to detect GH misuse. Commercial immunoassays for these markers have been validated for anti-doping purposes but new methods, including IGF-I measurement by use of mass spectrometry, should improve the performance of the tests and help in the detection of athletes who are doping with these peptide hormones.

Figure

Potential serum markers of IGF-I misuse. rhIGF-I/rhIGFBP-3 administration for 28 days caused an increase in serum IGF-I, P-III-NP and IGFBP-2 and decrease in serum IGF-II and ALS in recreational athletes

Keywords

IGF-I Growth hormone Doping 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nishan Guha
    • 1
    • 3
  • David A. Cowan
    • 2
  • Peter H. Sönksen
    • 1
  • Richard I. G. Holt
    • 1
  1. 1.Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  2. 2.Drug Control Centre, Department of Forensic Science and Drug MonitoringKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Level 4John Radcliffe HospitalHeadingtonUK