Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 405, Issue 10, pp 3125–3135

2-Methiopropamine, a thiophene analogue of methamphetamine: studies on its metabolism and detectability in the rat and human using GC-MS and LC-(HR)-MS techniques

  • Jessica Welter
  • Markus R. Meyer
  • Ehud (Udi) Wolf
  • Wolfgang Weinmann
  • Pierce Kavanagh
  • Hans H. Maurer
Research Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00216-013-6741-4

Cite this article as:
Welter, J., Meyer, M.R., Wolf, E. et al. Anal Bioanal Chem (2013) 405: 3125. doi:10.1007/s00216-013-6741-4

Abstract

2-Methiopropamine [1-(thiophen-2-yl)-2-methylaminopropane, 2-MPA], a thiophene analogue of methamphetamine, is available from online vendors selling “research chemicals.” The first samples were seized by the German police in 2011. As it is a recreational stimulant, its inclusion in routine drug screening protocols should be required. The aims of this study were to identify the phase I and II metabolites of 2-MPA in rat and human urine and to identify the human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved in its phase I metabolism. In addition, the detectability of 2-MPA in urine samples using the authors’ well-established gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry (LC-MSn) screening protocols was also evaluated. The metabolites were isolated from rat and human urine samples by solid-phase extraction without or following enzymatic cleavage of conjugates. The phase I metabolites, following acetylation, were separated and identified by GC-MS and/or liquid chromatography–high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MSn) and the phase II metabolites by LC-HR-MSn. The following major metabolic pathways were proposed: N-demethylation, hydroxylation at the side chain and at the thiophene ring, and combination of these transformations followed by glucuronidation and/or sulfation. CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 were identified as the major phase I metabolizing enzymes. They were also involved in the N-demethylation of the analogue methamphetamine and CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in its ring hydroxylation. Following the administration of a typical user’s dose, 2-MPA and its metabolites were identified in rat urine using the authors’ GC-MS and the LC-MSn screening approaches. Ingestion of 2-MPA could also be detected by both protocols in an authentic human urine sample.

Keywords

Designer drugsMethiopropamine2-MPACytochrome-P450GC-MSLC-MS

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica Welter
    • 1
  • Markus R. Meyer
    • 1
  • Ehud (Udi) Wolf
    • 2
  • Wolfgang Weinmann
    • 3
  • Pierce Kavanagh
    • 4
  • Hans H. Maurer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Experimental and Clinical Toxicology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and ToxicologySaarland UniversityHomburg (Saar)Germany
  2. 2.Analytical LabDivision of Identification and Forensic Sciences (DIFS), Israel Police HQJerusalemIsrael
  3. 3.Institute of Forensic MedicineUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  4. 4.Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Trinity Centre for Health and SciencesSt. James’s HospitalDublin 8Ireland