Original Paper

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 405, Issue 5, pp 1547-1557

First online:

Characterization of nanochannel delivery membrane systems for the sustained release of resveratrol and atorvastatin: new perspectives on promoting heart health

  • Juliana SihAffiliated withDepartment of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute
  • , Shyam S. BansalAffiliated withDepartment of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute
  • , Stefano FilipiniAffiliated withDepartment of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute
  • , Silvia FerratiAffiliated withDepartment of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute
  • , Kunal RaghuwansiAffiliated withNanoMedical Systems, Inc
  • , Erika ZabreAffiliated withDepartment of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute
  • , Eugenia NicolovAffiliated withDepartment of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute
  • , Daniel FineAffiliated withDepartment of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute
  • , Mauro FerrariAffiliated withDepartment of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research InstituteDepartment of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical CollegeDepartment of Bioengineering, Rice UniversityAlliance for NanoHealth
    • , Ganesh PalapattuAffiliated withDepartment of Urology, University of Michigan
    • , Alessandro GrattoniAffiliated withDepartment of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute Email author 

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Abstract

Novel drug delivery systems capable of continuous sustained release of therapeutics have been studied extensively for use in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. The use of these systems holds promise as a means to achieve higher patient compliance while improving therapeutic index and reducing systemic toxicity. In this work, an implantable nanochannel drug delivery system (nDS) is characterized and evaluated for the long-term sustained release of atorvastatin (ATS) and trans-resveratrol (t-RES), compounds with a proven role in managing atherogenic dyslipidemia and promoting cardioprotection. The primary mediators of drug release in the nDS are nanofluidic membranes with hundreds of thousands of nanochannels (up to 100,000/mm2) that attain zero-order release kinetics by exploiting nanoconfinement and molecule-to-surface interactions that dominate diffusive transport at the nanoscale. These membranes were characterized using gas flow analysis, acetone diffusion, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). The surface properties of the dielectric materials lining the nanochannels, SiO2 and low-stress silicon nitride, were further investigated using surface charge analysis. Continuous, sustained in vitro release for both ATS and t-RES was established for durations exceeding 1 month. Finally, the influence of the membranes on cell viability was assessed using human microvascular endothelial cells. Morphology changes and adhesion to the surface were analyzed using SEM, while an MTT proliferation assay was used to determine the cell viability. The nanochannel delivery approach, here demonstrated in vitro, not only possesses all requirements for large-scale high-yield industrial fabrication, but also presents the key components for a rapid clinical translation as an implantable delivery system for the sustained administration of cardioprotectants.

Keywords

Implants Sustained release Nanochannel membranes Drug delivery Cardioprotection