Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 405, Issue 5, pp 1547–1557

Characterization of nanochannel delivery membrane systems for the sustained release of resveratrol and atorvastatin: new perspectives on promoting heart health

Authors

  • Juliana Sih
    • Department of NanomedicineThe Methodist Hospital Research Institute
  • Shyam S. Bansal
    • Department of NanomedicineThe Methodist Hospital Research Institute
  • Stefano Filipini
    • Department of NanomedicineThe Methodist Hospital Research Institute
  • Silvia Ferrati
    • Department of NanomedicineThe Methodist Hospital Research Institute
  • Kunal Raghuwansi
    • NanoMedical Systems, Inc
  • Erika Zabre
    • Department of NanomedicineThe Methodist Hospital Research Institute
  • Eugenia Nicolov
    • Department of NanomedicineThe Methodist Hospital Research Institute
  • Daniel Fine
    • Department of NanomedicineThe Methodist Hospital Research Institute
  • Mauro Ferrari
    • Department of NanomedicineThe Methodist Hospital Research Institute
    • Department of MedicineWeill Cornell Medical College
    • Department of BioengineeringRice University
    • Alliance for NanoHealth
  • Ganesh Palapattu
    • Department of UrologyUniversity of Michigan
    • Department of NanomedicineThe Methodist Hospital Research Institute
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00216-012-6484-7

Cite this article as:
Sih, J., Bansal, S.S., Filipini, S. et al. Anal Bioanal Chem (2013) 405: 1547. doi:10.1007/s00216-012-6484-7

Abstract

Novel drug delivery systems capable of continuous sustained release of therapeutics have been studied extensively for use in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. The use of these systems holds promise as a means to achieve higher patient compliance while improving therapeutic index and reducing systemic toxicity. In this work, an implantable nanochannel drug delivery system (nDS) is characterized and evaluated for the long-term sustained release of atorvastatin (ATS) and trans-resveratrol (t-RES), compounds with a proven role in managing atherogenic dyslipidemia and promoting cardioprotection. The primary mediators of drug release in the nDS are nanofluidic membranes with hundreds of thousands of nanochannels (up to 100,000/mm2) that attain zero-order release kinetics by exploiting nanoconfinement and molecule-to-surface interactions that dominate diffusive transport at the nanoscale. These membranes were characterized using gas flow analysis, acetone diffusion, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). The surface properties of the dielectric materials lining the nanochannels, SiO2 and low-stress silicon nitride, were further investigated using surface charge analysis. Continuous, sustained in vitro release for both ATS and t-RES was established for durations exceeding 1 month. Finally, the influence of the membranes on cell viability was assessed using human microvascular endothelial cells. Morphology changes and adhesion to the surface were analyzed using SEM, while an MTT proliferation assay was used to determine the cell viability. The nanochannel delivery approach, here demonstrated in vitro, not only possesses all requirements for large-scale high-yield industrial fabrication, but also presents the key components for a rapid clinical translation as an implantable delivery system for the sustained administration of cardioprotectants.

Keywords

ImplantsSustained releaseNanochannel membranesDrug deliveryCardioprotection

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012