Beyond nC60: strategies for identification of transformation products of fullerene oxidation in aquatic and biological samples
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- Pycke, B.F.G., Chao, TC., Herckes, P. et al. Anal Bioanal Chem (2012) 404: 2583. doi:10.1007/s00216-012-6090-8
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Owing to their exceptional properties and versatility, fullerenes are in widespread use for numerous applications. Increased production and use of fullerenes will inevitably result in accelerated environmental release. However, study of the occurrence, fate, and transport of fullerenes in the environment is complicated because a variety of surface modifications can occur as a result of either intentional functionalization or natural processes. To gain a better understanding of the effect and risk of fullerenes on environmental health, it is necessary to acquire reliable data on the parent compounds and their congeners. Whereas currently established quantification methods generally focus on analysis of unmodified fullerenes, we discuss in this review the occurrence and analysis of oxidized fullerene congeners (i.e., their corresponding epoxides and polyhydroxylated derivatives) in the environment and in biological specimens. We present possible strategies for detection and quantification of parent nanomaterials and their various derivatives.