Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 404, Issue 9, pp 2583–2595

Beyond nC60: strategies for identification of transformation products of fullerene oxidation in aquatic and biological samples

  • Benny F. G. Pycke
  • Tzu-Chiao Chao
  • Pierre Herckes
  • Paul Westerhoff
  • Rolf U. Halden
Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00216-012-6090-8

Cite this article as:
Pycke, B.F.G., Chao, TC., Herckes, P. et al. Anal Bioanal Chem (2012) 404: 2583. doi:10.1007/s00216-012-6090-8
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Abstract

Owing to their exceptional properties and versatility, fullerenes are in widespread use for numerous applications. Increased production and use of fullerenes will inevitably result in accelerated environmental release. However, study of the occurrence, fate, and transport of fullerenes in the environment is complicated because a variety of surface modifications can occur as a result of either intentional functionalization or natural processes. To gain a better understanding of the effect and risk of fullerenes on environmental health, it is necessary to acquire reliable data on the parent compounds and their congeners. Whereas currently established quantification methods generally focus on analysis of unmodified fullerenes, we discuss in this review the occurrence and analysis of oxidized fullerene congeners (i.e., their corresponding epoxides and polyhydroxylated derivatives) in the environment and in biological specimens. We present possible strategies for detection and quantification of parent nanomaterials and their various derivatives.

Keywords

Polyhydroxylated fullereneFullerene epoxideBiotaBioaccumulationMass spectrometry

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benny F. G. Pycke
    • 1
  • Tzu-Chiao Chao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pierre Herckes
    • 2
  • Paul Westerhoff
    • 3
  • Rolf U. Halden
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Swette Center for Environmental BiotechnologyThe Biodesign Institute at Arizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  3. 3.School of Sustainable Engineering and The Built EnvironmentArizona State UniversityTempeUSA