Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 402, Issue 6, pp 1993–2013

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography in metabolomics


  • Martin F. Almstetter
    • Institute of Functional GenomicsUniversity of Regensburg
  • Peter J. Oefner
    • Institute of Functional GenomicsUniversity of Regensburg
    • Institute of Functional GenomicsUniversity of Regensburg

DOI: 10.1007/s00216-011-5630-y

Cite this article as:
Almstetter, M.F., Oefner, P.J. & Dettmer, K. Anal Bioanal Chem (2012) 402: 1993. doi:10.1007/s00216-011-5630-y


One of the major objectives in metabolomics is the identification of subtle changes in metabolite profiles as affected by genetic or environmental factors. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) hyphenated to a fast-acquisition mass spectrometer is a well-established analytical technique to study the composition of complex samples due to its enhanced separation capacity, sensitivity, peak resolution, and reproducibility. This review reports applications of GC × GC to metabolomics studies of sample of different types (biofluid, cells, tissue, bacteria, yeast, plants), and discusses its advantages and limitations.


MetabolomicsMetabolite profilingMetabolic fingerprintingComprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

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© Springer-Verlag 2012